Week 5 – 4th Quarter Daily Lesson Log (February 11 – 15, 2019) | Weekly DLL

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Update! Week 5 – 4th Quarter Daily Lesson Log (February 11 – 15, 2019) | Weekly DLL are now available.

In the past academic years, we shared Daily Lesson Logs and other files submitted by our Contributors that are proofread and formatted by our File Editors. Let’s welcome this new and progressive school year of collaboration and support!

We are always on the process of uploading new and updated K-12 Daily Lesson Logs weekly.

For K-6, we are almost complete in uploading Daily Lesson Logs. Yet, we will keep on uploading new versions of DLL’s every week. Also, some DLL’s may be incomplete in some higher grade levels. We will be uploading the additional DLL’s soon. Some DLL’s are still on the process of editing and formatting. Please take time to visit our website from time to time for the newly uploaded unannounced K-12 Daily Lesson Logs.

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week 5 feb 11-15 2019

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Education Traditions and Associated Notions of Quality Education

When thinking about the quality education, it is useful to distinguish between educational outcomes and the processes leading to them. People who seek particular, defined outcomes may rate quality education in those terms, ranking educational institutions according to the extent to which their graduates meet ‘absolute’ criteria concerning, for example, academic achievement, sporting prowess, musical success, or pupil behavior and values. The standard of comparison would be in some sense fixed, and separate from the values, wishes and opinions of the learners themselves.  By contrast, relativist approaches emphasize that the perceptions, experiences and needs of those involved in the learning experience mainly determine its quality.  Drawing on a business analogy, ‘client orientation’ in education puts strong emphasis upon whether a program fits its purposes in ways that reflect the needs of those who use it. These different emphases have deep roots, and are reflected in major alternative traditions of educational thought.

Humanist approaches. The ideas that human nature is essentially good, that individual behavior is autonomous (within the constraints of heredity and environment), that everyone is unique, that all people are born equal and subsequent inequality is a product of circumstance and that reality for each person is defined by himself or herself characterize a range of liberal humanist philosophers from Locke to Rousseau. Such principles, where accepted, have immediate relevance for educational practice. Learners, for humanists, are at the center of ‘meaning-making’, which implies a relativist interpretation of quality education.

Education, strongly influenced by learner actions, is judged central to developing the potential of the child. The notion that acquisition of knowledge and skills requires the active participation of individual learners is a central link between humanism and constructivist learning theory. The latter was influenced strongly by the work of John Dewey, who emphasized the ways in which people learn how to construct their own meanings and to integrate theory and practice as a basis for social action. Piaget (1971) was also influential in developing a more ‘active ‘and ‘participatory’ role for children in their learning. More recently, social constructivism, which regards learning as intrinsically a social – and, therefore, interactive – process, has tended to supersede more conventional constructivist approaches.

Behaviorist approaches. Behaviorist theory leads in the opposite direction to humanism. It is based on manipulation of behavior via specific stimuli. Behaviorism exerted a significant influence on educational reform during the first half of the twentieth century. Its main tenets were that: Learners are not intrinsically motivated or able to construct meaning for themselves. Human behavior can be predicted and controlled through reward and punishment. Cognition is based on the shaping of behavior. Deductive and didactic pedagogies, such as graded tasks, rote learning and memorization, are helpful. Although few educationists accept the full behaviorist agenda in its pure form, elements of behaviorist practice can be observed in many countries in teacher-training programs, curricula and the ways teachers actually operate in classrooms.

Critical approaches. Over the final quarter of the twentieth century, several important critiques of the precepts of humanism and behaviorism emerged. Sociologists had already perceived society as a system of interrelated parts, with order and stability maintained by commonly held values. Since the role of education is to transmit these values, quality in this approach would be measured by the effectiveness of the processes of value transmission. In the latter part of the twentieth century, critics began to acknowledge these processes as highly political. Some neoMarxist approaches characterized education in capitalist societies as the main mechanism for legitimizing and reproducing social inequality. Others, in the ‘new sociology of education’ movement of the 1970s and 1980s, focused their critiques on the role of the curriculum as a social and political means of transmitting power and knowledge. A separate group of critical writers, known as the ‘de-schoolers’, called for the abandonment of schooling in favor of more community-organized forms of formal education. Other critiques of orthodox approaches included various postmodern and feminist views. While the critical approaches encompass a vast array of philosophies, they share a concern that education tends to reproduce the structures and inequalities of the wider society. Though many retain the founding humanist principle that human development is the ultimate end of thought and action, they question the belief that universal schooling will result automatically in equal development of learners’ potential. As a reaction against this, advocates of an ‘emancipatory pedagogy’ suggested that ‘critical intellectuals’ should work to empower marginalized students by helping them analyze their experience – and thus redress social inequality and injustice.

Critical pedagogy, in this view, is emancipatory in the sense that it lets students find their own voices (Freire, 1985), frees them from externally defined needs (Giroux, 1993) and helps them to explore alternative ways of thinking that may have been buried under dominant norms (McLaren, 1994).

Indigenous approaches. Some important efforts to develop alternative educational ideas are rooted in the realities of lower-income countries and have often arisen as challenges to the legacies of colonialism. Prominent examples include the approaches of Mahatma Gandhi and Julius Nyerere, both of whom proposed new and alternative education systems with culturally relevant emphases on self-reliance, equity and rural employment. Such indigenous approaches challenged the ‘imported’ knowledge, images, ideas, values and beliefs reflected in mainstream curricula. A positive example of the alternatives offered, in curriculum terms, is in the field of mathematics. ‘Ethno-mathematicians’ claim that ‘standard’ mathematics is neither neutral nor objective, but culturally biased and that alternative forms exist that have implications for teaching and learning.

 Adult education approaches. Adult education is frequently ignored in debates about quality education, but it has its share of behaviorist, humanist and critical approaches. Some writers, with roots in humanism and constructivism, emphasize the experience of adults as a central learning resource. Others see adult education as an essential part of socio-cultural, political and historical transformation. The latter view is most famously associated with literacy programs and with the work of the radical theorist Paulo Freire, for whom education was an intensely important mechanism for awakening political awareness. His work urges adult educators not only to engage learners in dialogue, to name oppressive experiences, but also, through ‘problem posing’ and ‘conscientization’, to realize the extent to which they themselves have been influenced by repressive societal forces.

 


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Week 5 – 4th Quarter Daily Lesson Log
February 11 – 15, 2019


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